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Wellness Programs

The Scientific and Analytic Foundations for LMR Health Risk Appraisals


Critical questions in the evaluation of any health risk appraisal relate to:

  • What is the philosophy and fact base upon which the assessment has been built?

  • Has care been taken to assure statistical accuracy within measures?

  • What are the results and how else can the data be used?


An extensive scientific paper is available to trace the foundations of LMR HEALTH's products carefully. Similarly a series of case studies are available that convey results and the variety of diverse uses that exist. This paper has been developed to explain the base LMR HEALTH concepts in a summary fashion.


Philosophy/Fact Base


LMR HEALTH's analysis are based on 11 broad categories of variables including:

  1. Demographic variables (non-modifiable factors that predict risk)

  2. Lifestyle behaviors that affect risk

  3. Environmental factors that increase risk

  4. Biochemical, histological, physiological conditions that increase risk

  5. Reports of symptoms suggesting major illnesses

  6. Reported medical conditions requiring some direct intervention

  7. Types and frequency of prescription medications used for treatment

  8. Currents levels of medical care required

  9. HRQOL (Health-related quality of life)

  10. Lifestyle behaviors that may affect existing medical conditions

  11. Probability of Repeated Admissions (Pra)


LMR HEALTH Analysis are based on major research and professional sources including:

  • The Framingham Heart Study

  • The National Research Council

  • The American Cancer Society

  • The American Heart Association

  • The American College of Sports Medicine

  • DHHS, Centers for Disease Control

  • USDA, Agricultural Research Service

  • Health People 2000, Full Report with Commentary

  • National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel

  • Cancer Causes and Control: The Harvard Study

  • Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: US Preventive Services Task Force

  • Numerous university, clinic, and hospital research studies.


LMR HEALTH takes into consideration both antecedent behaviors (conditions that can lead to future illness) and succedent behaviors (the consequences of illness following treatment or the need for treatment/follow up).


Statistical Accuracy



  • Completed both reliability and validity verification.

  • Considered the issue of false positives and false negatives.

  • Considered the effect of age on broad categories of disease.

  • Recognized the effect of behavior change after diagnosis.

  • Refined 4 different ways of scoring including:

    • Personal Risk Score

    • Weighted Average Score

    • High Impact Area Scores

    • Pattern Analysis


Results and Alternative Uses of Data


Results have been documented through a series of case studies. These studies reflect not only the specific results from specific applications but also reflect on the wide variations in alternative ways to use the data.


LMR HEALTH HRA's have primarily been used to identify high risk and moderate risk individuals from a larger population.


LMR HEALTH HRA's have also been used to:

  • Study compliance issues against national norms

  • Study populations of different ages versus national norms

  • Identify high users of health care services

  • Focus on the major high cost disease entities such ascardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke.

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